Title: People in the Environment and Environments Perceived by People: Cognitive-Behavioural Approaches to Spatial Cognition
This article discusses human spatial cognition and behaviour from a cognitivebehavioural perspective, focusing on the interaction between people and the environment. It first looks at internal representations of environments and their relationships with spatial behaviour, particularly the concepts of cognitive maps, environment perception, and the image of a city. Next it discusses the ability pertaining to the perception of space and considers spatial cognition in the broader context of spatial thinking. The discussion in relation to spatial ability and thinking clarifies the significance of studying spatial cognition from the perspective of individual differences. The article concludes with the discussion of human–environment interaction and three viewpoints that are of theoretical and practical importance for thinking about cognition and the city.